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Defensive Driving Techniques

Adopting defensive-driving techniques can keep you safe on the road and may even save you money.

Here are the following tips below.

1. Stay focused:

Defensive drivers concentrate on the road, keeping their hands at the 10 o’clock-2 o’clock position.

2. Stay alert:

Don’t drive if you’re tired or upset.

3. Go with the flow :

Most drivers know that speeding is a major cause of accidents, but driving too slow can be dangerous, too. Drive at speeds that most other vehicles are going.

4. Familiarize yourself with traffic rules:

Get to know the rules of the road, such as road signs, traffic law.

5. Adapt to road conditions:

The light rain can produce dangerous conditions, better to slowing down in inclement weather is a fundamental defensive-driving technique.


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2017 Mazda MX-5 Miata RF – Crafted with Passion!!!

The Mazda MX-5 Miata has earned its place in automotive history as arguably the most successful compact sports car in the industry.


The sophisticated comfort of a luxury sedan can now be found within the athletic styling of an exotic sports car. With noise‑absorbing headliner in the hardtop roof, insulation in the rear‑wheel housing, and a transparent windblocker, the MX‑5 RF was designed for a shockingly quiet drive that’s equally thrilling. 

Miata Interior

The Miata RF features a unique 4.6-inch color display next to its instrument cluster. The hardtop will also get exclusive Nappa leather, while the softtop will only offer regular leather on its Grand Touring model.


KODO design is woven into the very fabric that makes the MX‑5 RF the masterfully crafted vehicle that it is. With its distinct KODO design, Mazda adorns each vehicle with a distinguished yet energetic look and feel that’s accompanied by uncompromised craftsmanship and engineering. 

miata design

The hard top’s design doesn’t disrupt the side profile or jut from the rear fender. Thanks to a combination of engineering and design, the Miata RF achieves that coupe-like appearance without dramatically affecting the overall look of the car.


The nimble handling and a gripping suspension makes the vehicle seamlessly responds to the driver’s commands. Plus the SKYACTIV‑G 2.0 L engine and specially tuned electric power steering makes your drive that is both breathtaking and intuitive. 

miata perf

The drivetrain is unchanged from the Miata, with a 1.5-liter four-cylinder available in other markets and a 2.0-liter Skyactiv four-cylinder as standard equipment. Six-speed manual and six-speed automatic variants remain on the menu. 


The 2017 Mazda MX-5 Miata RF safety features and design is found in the available i-ACTIVSENSE features that use milliwave radar and cameras to create a kind of sixth sense when you are behind the wheel. Adaptive Front Lighting allows you to see around corners at night, with headlights that shift up to 15 degrees to point in the direction you are turning. 

Miata safety

Various other safety features include Dynamic Stability Control, Traction Control System, Hill Launch Assist, Advanced Blind Spot Monitoring System, Rear Cross Traffic Alert and Anti-theft alarm system.

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IONIQ: Hyundai’s First Hybrid, Electric & Plug-in Hybrid Car!!!

Hyundai claims that the Ioniq is the first car to be offered as either a pure electric model, a plug-in hybrid or a conventional hybrid model.

What is IONIQ?

IONIQ is the latest vehicle innovation from Hyundai. The all-new IONIQ is the world’s first vehicle to feature three electrified powertrain options — Hybrid, Electric and Plug-In.  It has  environmentally conscious technologies that help reduce automotive pollution. The vision of Hyundai is to lead the industry by developing advanced propulsion vehicles that are fun to drive, have great style and that benefit the environment. 



The Ioniq weighs 60kg lighter than a regular family hatchback, because of using aluminium for key parts of the car, instead of high-strength steel. The car’s alloy wheels have been designed specifically to disturb air minimally as it passes under the car. All Ioniqs are fitted with front and rear lip spoilers to direct air as it flows around the car. 

Ioniq Design


The spacious interior of the IONIQ is charged with distinct design cues. The seven-inch infotainment touchscreen removes the need for several dashboard buttons and is the ‘nerve centre’ of the interior. It’s compatible with Android Auto and Apple CarPlay, allowing you to safely (and legally) control features on your smartphone while at the wheel.

Ioniq Interior

Enjoy maximum versatility with expansive cargo space and 60/40 split fold seats. Plenty of head, shoulder and legroom is assured for all occupants and boot space is claimed to be best-in-class. The Hybrid has is 443 litres of boot space, while the Electric has 350. 

Three Ways to Electrify Your Drive

Deciding on the right IONIQ for you depends on how often you drive, how far you drive, and your driving style. Whichever you choose, every IONIQ is engineered to deliver a rewarding and engaging drive to suit your lifestyle. 

Ioniq Hybrid

The IONIQ Hybrid delivers performance, impressive efficiency and low emissions. The electric motor recharges on the move, while a Dual Clutch Transmission delivers smooth automatic gear changes. The hybrid combines a specially designed 1.6-litre petrol engine and an electric motor producing 43bhp.

Ioniq Electric

The IONIQ Electric allows you to drive for up to 174 miles on a single charge – all emission-free. It achieves this via an 88 kW electric motor designed to enhance the driving experience with its torque-rich performance. 

Ioniq Plug-In

The IONIQ Plug-In will have an all-electric range of around 31 miles thanks to a 60bhp electric motor and 104bhp petrol engine providing slightly more power than the standard hybrid.

Variants Ioniq


All models come with seven airbags (including one for the driver’s knees) and an electronic stability programme designed to help you regain control of the car if it begins to skid. Other features include Lane Departure Warning System with Lane Keep Assist (LKAS), Blind Spot Detection (BSD), Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB) and Smart Cruise Control (ASCC).

Ioniq Safety

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2017 Jeep Compass Overview!!!

The 2017 Jeep Compass gives the nameplate a fresh start with mini-Cherokee looks, 4-cylinder power, and Trail Rated hardware.


The 2017 Jeep Compass features a spacious interior with soft touchpoints for added comfort. Personalize and adjust your seating to the most comfortable position with the available six-way power driver seat with manual lumbar adjustment. Stay warm when it’s cold out and keep cool when the sun’s out with Automatic Temperature Control.

Jeep Compass Interior

The available leather-wrapped steering wheel lets you enjoy the soft, upscale feel of leather trim along with convenient controls for phone, voice, audio and more. Available heated front seats bring warmth on cool days. Stay connected to all your favorite music and entertainment with a variety of standard and available Uconnect systems.


Classic exterior styling includes the iconic Jeep Brand seven-slot grille with chrome or mineral gray accents, side roof rails and more, making Compass an inspiringly eye-catching vehicle. Body-color mirrors and door handles are available on Compass for a look that’s polished and put-together.

Jeep Compass Exterior

All Compass models feature a blacked-out roof with black A-, B-, and C-pillars. Compass features standard halogen fog lamps to light the path ahead. The wheel and tire combinations are designed to turn heads on any urban adventure.


The Jeep Compass has superior off-road capability. The Compass is available with two DOHC 16-valve four-cylinder engines—a standard 2.0L and an available 2.4L engine. Both engines offer outstanding efficiency and responsive power for a refined driving experience.

Jeep Compass performance

Available heavy-duty Forged Steel Tow Hooks are perfect for helping pull less-capable vehicles out of ditches. Available Hill Descent Control helps monitor throttle, speed and braking on Compass when you need it most. Compass can tow up to 2,000 pounds when properly equipped.


Compass is equipped with over 30 standard and available safety and security features offering advanced occupant protection. These features include six advanced airbags, an ultra-high-strength steel crossbeam and engineered-in crush zones.


Available Sensors continually monitor tire pressure and will immediately notify the driver when any level moves below or above the recommended level. Available Automatic Headlamps turn on and off automatically depending on exterior light levels.

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Mazda – Skyactiv Technology on Gasoline Engine

Breakthrough Innovations Lift Cars’ Performance to New Heights


Conventional internal combustion engines are only able to harness around 30% of fuels potential energy. By pushing the limits of internal combustion, Mazda has developed the SKYACTIV family of engines which can deliver much greater fuel efficiency than conventional engines. Simply put, SKYACTIV engines can compress the air-fuel mixture in the cylinders to an extraordinary degree, squeezing far more energy from every drop of fuel.
With their compression ratio of 14:1, unparalleled among mass production engines, SKYACTIV engines bring you both sheer driving pleasure and outstanding fuel economy.

Let’s Move on with the Skyactiv Technology.

SKYACTIV-G Gasoline Engine –  SKYACTIV-G

A new-generation highly-efficient direct-injection gasoline engine that achieves the world’s highest gasoline engine compression ratio of 14.0:1


  • The world’s first gasoline engine for mass production vehicles to achieve a high compression ratio of 14.0:1
  • Significantly improved engine efficiency thanks to the high compression combustion, resulting in 15 percent increases in fuel efficiency and torque
  • Improved everyday driving thanks to increased torque at low- to mid-engine speeds
  • A 4-2-1 exhaust system, cavity pistons, multihole injectors and other innovations enable the high compression ratio

*The 15% improvement in fuel efficiency and torque was calculated by comparing SKYACTIV-G to Mazda’s current gasoline engine.
Compression ratio, fuel economy and torque vary according to market, carline and transmission.

Merits and Issues of a High Compression Ratio

  • Increasing the compression ratio considerably improves thermal efficiency. The compression ratio of recent gas engines is generally around 10:1 to 12:1.
  • Theoretically, if the compression ratio is raised from 10:1 to 15:1, the thermal efficiency will improve by roughly 9%. However, one of the reasons preventing the spread of high compression ratio gas engines is the large torque drop due to knocking (Fig.1) 

    fig.1:Torque decrease due to increased compression ratio
  • Knocking is abnormal combustion in which the air-fuel mixture ignites prematurely due to exposure to high temperature and pressure, creating an unwanted high-frequency noise. When the compression ratio is increased, the temperature at compression top dead center (TDC) also rises, increasing the probability of knocking.
  • In order to lower the temperature at compression TDC, reducing the amount of hot exhaust gas remaining inside the combustion chamber is effective. For example, with a compression ratio of 10:1, a residual gas temperature of 750 deg. C, and an intake air temperature of 25 deg. C, if 10% of the exhaust gas remains, the temperature inside the cylinder before compression increases by roughly 70 deg. C, and the temperature at compression TDC is calculated to increase by roughly 160 deg. C. Therefore, it can be easily inferred that the amount of residual gas has an major impact on knocking.

    fig.2:Effect of residual gas reduction
  • These calculations are summarized in Fig.2, and as indicated, if the amount of residual gas is halved from 8% to 4%, the temperature at compression TDC is calculated to remain the same even when the compression ratio is increased from 11:1 to 14:1. 
  • This reduction of residual gas was focused on for SKYACTIV-G, enabling the realization of a high compression ratio gasoline engine.

Knock-Resistant Technologies

4-2-1 Exhaust System

fig.3:Residual gas reduction by 4-2-1 exhaust system
  • One option to significantly reduce residual gas is the adoption of a 4-2-1 exhaust system.
  • As shown in Fig.3, when the exhaust manifold is short, the high pressure wave from the gas emerging immediately after cylinder No. 3’s exhaust valves open,
  • For example, arrives at cylinder No.1 as it finishes its exhaust stroke and enters its intake stroke. As a result, exhaust gas which has just moved out of the cylinder is forced back inside the combustion chamber, increasing the amount of hot residual gas.
  • With a short exhaust manifold, the high pressure wave arrives at the next cylinder within a short amount of time, causing this adverse effect to continue from low to high engine speeds.
  • However, with a long 4-2-1 exhaust system, since it takes time for the high pressure wave to reach the next cylinder, the effect mentioned is limited to extra-low engine speeds, making the reduction of residual gas at almost all engine speeds possible.
  • In addition, a pipe length of over 600mm was necessary to elevate actual-use torque, but space was saved by adopting a loop shape.
  • The major issue with the 4-2-1 exhaust system is that the long distance cools the exhaust gas before it reaches the catalyst, delaying the catalyst’s activation. Exhaust gas temperature can be increased by delaying the ignition timing, but too much retardation causes unstable combustion. For SKYACTIV-G, stable combustion was realized even when the ignition timing after engine-start is considerably delayed. 

    fig.4:Piston cavity
  • This was made possible by adopting a piston cavity (Fig.4) and optimizing fuel injection in order to formulate a stratified air-fuel mixture around the spark plug. Furthermore, the piston cavity resolved the issue of the initial flame coming in contact with the piston head and generating a cooling loss.

Combustion Improvement

To improve resistance to knocking, shortening of combustion duration was also attempted. The faster the combustion, the shorter amount of time the unburned air-fuel mixture is exposed to high temperatures, allowing for normal combustion to conclude before knocking occurs. Specifically, aside from creating a more homogeneous mixture by means of intensifying air flow, increasing injection pressure, and using multi-hole injectors to enhance fuel spray characteristics, a piston cavity is used to prevent the initial combustion flame from hitting the piston and interfering with the flame’s growth.

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One Smart Minivan by Chrysler


Introducing the Chrysler Pacifica Limited is North America’s First ever Hybrid Minivan. It gets an incredible 33 miles full electric range and up to a 566 mile total driving range on a full tank and a full charge. But that doesn’t mean you have to sacrifice family functionality, it comes with seating for seven, available hands free, sliding doors,  lift gate and more.


  • Elite Performance: The Chrysler Pacifica and its award-winning standard 3.6L Pentastar V6 engine and nine-speed automatic transmission have excellent efficiency of up to 28 highway mpg.
  • Trailer Towing: The Chrysler Pacifica provides a Best-in-Class maximum towing capacity of 3,600 pounds to help you transport your oversized toys.
  • STANDARD ELECTRONIC STABILITY CONTROL: Electronic stability control is a computerized technology that improves a vehicle’s stability by detecting and reducing loss of traction (skidding).


Electronic Stability Control applies selective braking and throttle control (if necessary) to help you maintain directional control.


  • Enticing Entertainment The available Uconnect Theater features dual 10.1-inch HD touchscreens with Blu-ray player, dual HDMI inputs, individual remotes, wireless headphones, Bluetooth remotes, downloadable games and apps.


They have 9 built-in applications, one of them is “are we there yet” it shows how long is left in your trip. This works on gps, so no need to trouble the driver.


Other than that it has 8 different games including Sudoku, tic-tac-toe, solitaire and more. It also has games like checkers which can be played with the other passengers. Video can be streamed from your devices, it also has wireless headphones.

  • The Perfect Touch: Convenience is at hand with the available 8.4-inch touchscreen.


Get help from Siri Eyes Free, the iPhone mobile device digital assistant. Customize your home screen and more, you can get access to GPS Navigation as well as SiriusXM Traffic and SiriusXM Travel Link, both with a five-year trial included. With these services you’ll get access to real-time traffic, weather updates, sports scores, fuel prices and more.

  • Hybrid Smart Minivan: It is the combination of Electric + Gas that make One Smart Minivan by Chrysler. The Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid offers the best of both worlds. Powered by an electric motor and gasoline engine, it automatically switches between electric power and hybrid power. Now it’s simple to get the efficiency you’re looking for with a surprisingly extensive driving range.


The lithium-ion battery is the heart of the Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid. It works seamlessly with the engine to deliver optimal efficiency. Strong enough to power the vehicle for up to 33 miles on a single charge, it can be charged in as little as two hours with an available 240-volt Level II charger. The battery has a 10-Year/150,000-Mile Limited Warranty or a 10-Year/100,000-Mile Limited Warranty depending on what state you live in.


Charge your battery at home in just two hours with an available 240-volt Level II charger, or plug into a typical wall outlet with the 120-volt cable that is included with every Pacifica Hybrid either way you can’t go wrong. The battery even self-charges via regenerative braking, which captures energy from the brakes when they are applied. Plus, thousands of public charging stations are available nationwide.

Honorable mentions:

Active Noise Cancellation: Your children’s naps just got more peaceful. With standard active noise cancellation, the Chrysler Pacifica is the quietest vehicle in its class.

Mobile App: When it comes to your vehicle it should make your like easier both on the road and off. That’s why they have created a hybrid mobile app, now you can view your vehicle’s fuel level, check the battery charge and send the charging schedule right from the palm of your hand. Plus the app lets you see trip information, locate charging station and start your car it’s a smart way to stay connected.

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Family Friendly Cars

Many family buyers may be interested in SUVs and MPVs, but the traditional large family car continues to make an excellent case for itself. Each one of our selection is available with a wide range of engines, allowing you to prioritize economy, performance or a combination of the two.

Mazda6 Tourer


  • If you’re looking for a stylish, practical, good-to-drive and cheap-to run family estate, then you can’t go far wrong with the Mazda6.
  • The Mazda6 is one of the best handling cars on this list.
  • Mazda’s engineers have perfectly balanced the 6’s suspension, so it offers a great deal of driver involvement with little body lean, yet still manages to insulate you from potholes and poor road surfaces well.
  • The Mazda6 Tourer is also comfortable, well equipped and – while looks are subjective – a distinctively handsome car.
  • recommended 2.2-litre diesel, which returns an excellent 67.3mpg, yet is powerful enough to get the Mazda6 from 0-62mph in just 9.3 seconds.
  • Standard equipment levels are high, too, with all models featuring air-conditioning and cruise control, and with a large centrally mounted infotainment screen to control systems such as the DAB radio and Bluetooth.

Kia Optima saloon


  • The Kia Optima comes with plenty of equipment and the company’s excellent seven-year warranty, while the recently introduced hybrid model improves economy, emissions and overall appeal significantly.
  • The Optima is a handsome and generously equipped car and, while it was previously only available with a 1.7-litre diesel engine, the recent addition of a plug-in hybrid (PHEV) version brings the Optima out of the ‘also-ran’ category.
  • The Optima hybrid attracts a Benefit-in-Kind rate of just 7%, making it seriously appealing to the company-car drivers it’s (realistically) aimed at; fuel economy is also a strong point, as the hybrid Optima returns a (claimed) 176.6mpg.
  • Inside, the Optima has a well-designed dashboard and standard sat nav is a welcome feature.
  • The entry-level Optima 2 has a seven-inch touchscreen, Bluetooth connectivity, a reversing camera and DAB radio, as well as a leather steering wheel and gearlever, alloy wheels, air-conditioning and all-round electric windows.


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